Cyprus Infertility Treatment

What is Infertility?

Couples’ inability to have a baby naturally is named as infertility. Infertility is defined as inability to get conceive despite regular unprotected sexual intercourse over the course of 12 months. For a couple to be medically diagnosed with infertility, couples aged under 35 years must have regular unprotected sexual intercourse for at least 1 year and couples aged over 35 years must have regular unprotected sexual intercourse for at least 6 months.

Infertility may occur in 20% of each couple in reproductive age. Frequency of infertility incidence increases with aging. Infertility is a health problem that is related to reproductive system. It may be caused by a single reason while it may also be result of combination of a couple of factors.

Assisted reproductive techniques must be resorted if conception does not occur following 1-year regular and unprotected sexual intercourse in couples aged under 35 years, 6 months in couples aged over 35 years and 3 months in couples over 40 years.


What are the Causes of Infertility?

Conception rate of a women in each menstrual period is around 15 to 20% for general population. 85% of couples who wish to get pregnant achieve it at the end of first year. In couples who cannot conceive, infertility problem arises from man-related factors by 40%, woman-related factors by 50% and unexplained factors by 10%. In unexplained infertility, cause of infertility cannot be medically identified.


Causes of Female Infertility

  • Ovulation problems
  • Congenital anatomic abnormalities
  • Infections and intra-abdominal operations
  • Immunity system problems
  • Aging
  • Genetic diseases
  • Early menopause
  • Polycystic Over Syndrome
  • Uterine myoma
  • Endometriosis
  • Damage and blockage in tubes
  • Irregular menstrual cycle
  • Low ovarian reserve
  • Heavy smoking and excessive alcohol and caffeine use
  • Obesity
  • Substance abuse
  • Vaginismus
  • Thyroid Problems
  • History of cancer treatment
  • High prolactin level


Causes of Male Infertility

  • Decrease in sperm production and sperm motility
  • Abnormal sperm function
  • Retrograde ejaculation
  • Absence of sperm cell in semen (Azoospermia)
  • Varicoceles (enlargement of veins that carry blood to testicles)
  • Canal blocakges
  • Neurological diseases
  • Damaged lumbar spine due to trauma
  • Hormonal disorders and genetic diseases
  • Abnormal sperm shape (morphology)
  • Congenital anatomic problems (undescended testicles etc.)
  • Immunity system problems
  • Diabetics
  • Sexual function disorders (such as erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation)
  • Infections
  • Hypothalamus Disorders
  • Some inflammatory diseases one had during childhood and adolescence
  • History of cancer treatment
  • Stress
  • Use of illicit drugs
  • Heavy smoking and excessive alcohol and caffeine use


Diagnosis Methods

Different examinations are conducted in men and women in order to diagnose the condition of inability to conceive despite regular and unprotected sexual intercourse, that is, infertility.

One of these examinations in men is semen analysis (spermiogram test). Sperm sample that is taken 3-5 days after sexual abstinence is analyzed under microscope. Semen analysis provides information as to sperm count, motility and structure. Antisperm antibody test and Sperm DNA damage test can be also conducted as required. If menstrual cycle is regular in women; FSH, LH and E2 blood level is checked on the 2nd or 3rd day of menstrual period in order to evaluate ovarian quality and AMH hormone level is checked in order to ovarian reserve.

Fluoroscopic examination of the uterus that is named as HSG is used to evaluate whether fallopian tubes are open or closed.


What are Treatment Methods?

Cause of infertility must be analyzed very well for a healthy pregnancy and baby. It is very important to determine the best personal treatment option in order to fix infertility problem.

Methods used to treat infertility are as follows: