Spermiogram Test Cyprus – Sperm Test Cyprus – Semen Analysis Cyprus

A series of test are done in order to detect infertility or other problems in men. One of them is sperm test. In other words, it is spermiogram test. Spermiogram test is the most important laboratory test done to evaluate the male reproductive capacity.

This analysis is used to check several parameters of ejaculate (seminal fluid). The most important ones are as follows:

  • Sperm concentration (established in million sperm/ml),
  • Morphology (percentage of normally shaped sperms is established in %) and sperm motility (movement is established in %)
  • pH value,
  • Liquefaction (breaking up of semen)
  • Leucocyte (white blood cell)


Who Get Sperm Test Done?

Semen analysis applied to

  • Men who is thought to suffer from reproductive problem
  • Couples who go to hospital for in vitro fertilization
  • Patients with urological problems such as varicocele and undescended testicles
  • Patients who underwent chemotherapy or radiotherapy
  • Patients with hypertension, diabetics and thyroid problems if they experience reproductive problem.

At least 10-20% of couples have difficulty in conceiving. Your doctor may ask you to get sperm test done if they think you may be suffering from infertility problem. If sperm test result is abnormal, it is repeated within the period of time prescribed by the doctor. If abnormality is observed again, method of treatment is determined based on the type of problem.


How is Spermiogram Test Done?

A man must abstain from sex for 3 days before giving sperm sample. Sexual abstinence of 3 to 7 days is enough. In case of sexual abstinence less than 3 days, sperm count may be lower than normal. In case of sexual abstinence more than 7 days, sperm motility may be decreased.

As sperm sample must be analyzed within an hour, it is preferred that sample is taken in a center. Therefore, comfortable rooms that are special for men are available in our center. Patient masturbates and ejaculates into a special cup and delivers it to the laboratory.

After the semen liquefaction, evaluation is made and report is written.

One semen analysis must be conducted at least with two samples at 2-3 week intervals. Sperm count and sperm concentration may change from day to day and some conditions may affect sperm levels.


You Must Pay Attention to The Following Points During Sperm Test;

  • Substances such as soap, lubricant should not be used while providing sperm for sperm test.
  • Likewise; during the process, one should make sure that their penis and fingers do not touch the inner surface of the cup and its cover.
  • Patient must make sure that the entire semen is ejaculated into the cup.
  • If the sperm overflows the cup or if you encounter a similar problem, you must definitely inform laboratory attendants of the situation.
  • If you cannot provide sperm in laboratory environment, you must inform laboratory attendants or IVF department patient desk staff of the situation and consult the suitable method with your doctor.


Semen Analysis Results

After you provide your sperm sample, test results are prepared 1 day later.

Normal Values in a Sperm Analysis are as follows:  

Volume: > 1.5 ml
Concentration: > 15 million / ml
Total Cells: > 39 million
Motility (Movement): – 45 %
Morphology (Normal Shape): – 4 %
pH: 7.2 – 8
Vitality: – 75 %
White Blood Cells: less than 1 million in ml


Parameters Checked in Semen Analysis Results and Their Implications:

Sperm Concentration (Sperm Count)

Sperm concentration is of great significance for sperm to be able to fertilize an egg. Sperm concentration less or more than certain levels may indicate an infertility problem.

Sperm concentration measures how many millions of sperms are in a milliliter of semen. Normal sperm concentration in a semen is 20 million and over in a milliliter. Total sperm count in entire semen must be 40 million and over.


Motility (Sperm Movement)

Motility is a parameter that is indicative of percentage of sperm that moves in a semen sample, direction and rates of sperm movements. Sperm motility is important for sperm to be able to fertilize an egg. Under normal conditions, at least 50% of sperms must be moving one hour after ejaculation (ejecting semen from the body). Movement pattern of sperms is as important as the movement rate of sperms; sperms must move rapidly (linearly) on a straight line. Sperm movement is classified from 0 (motionless) to 4. While 3 and 4 represents good motility, 0-1-2 indicates poor motility.


Morphology (Sperm Shape and Appearance)

Morphology is an important factor in terms of sperm’s reproductive capacity. Sperm shape that is not normal has low potential to fertilize an egg.

Morphology parameter implies sperm shape, sperm size and appearance. In order to evaluate this parameter, 200 sperms are selected randomly and damages are noted. Morphological evaluation is carried out in line with “Kruger criteria” in our center. The higher the rate of abnormal sperm, the lower the reproductive potential. Abnormal shape implies head, neck and tail abnormalities and immature sperm structures. Morphology must be at least 4% in a normal spermiogram test.


Vitality (Percentage of Live Sperm)

Vitality implies percentage of live sperm in a semen sample. If less than 50% of sperms are moving, vitality parameter is checked. This parameter shows if unmoving sperms are live or not. This test is also known as sperm liveliness test.



Semen contains cells other than sperm. Leucocytes (white blood cells) indicate a current or past infection. Therefore, semen is analyzed for leucocyte as a routine procedure.

Normally, there must be less than 1 million leucocytes in a milliliter of semen.


Semen acid – base balance (pH)

Semen pH is measured with a special paper that changes depending on pH level.

Normal semen pH shows an alkaline (basic) value between 7.2 and 7.8. Value of semen pH can be affected due to problems that occur in one or couple of accessory glands. pH value does not generally have great effects on male reproductive potential.


Terms that are Related to Spermiogram Test:

Normospermia: Normal sperm count, motility and shape.

Oligospermia: Low sperm count.

Asthenospermia: Low sperm cell motility.

Teratospermia: Low rate of sperm cell with normal morphology.

Oligoasthenospermia: Problem with sperm count, motility and shape.

Azoospermia: Absence of sperm cell in ejaculate (semen).


What are the Factors that Affect Sperm Quality Adversely?

  • Smoking and drinking alcohol
  • Antidepressant, steroid, some type of antibiotics
  • Medication and radiology imaging techniques used for treatment of cancer
  • Constant exposure to chemical substances
  • Inhaling agricultural pesticides through air
  • Long-term exposure to radiation
  • Wearing tight underwear
  • Stress, overheat, following an unbalanced diet that contains hormone-injected food products
  • Spending too much time in overheated environments such as hot bath, sauna and Turkish bath
  • History of infectious diseases, hormone disorders, traumas and diseases such as varicocele